When someone has diabetes, either the pancreas is not producing enough insulin or the body is unable to use the insulin produced. Insulin’s job is to control the use and distribution of sugar in our bodies. When insulin cannot do its job correctly, the sugar level in the blood becomes too high.
A very important key fact to remember is that patients with diabetes have a much slower healing time that is directly related to poor circulation.
There are several types of diabetes:
- Brittle – unpredictable changes in the client’s glucose tolerance.
- Insipidus – inadequate amount of an antidiuretic hormone that causes excessive urination and thirst; more common in younger people.
- Juvenile-onset – diagnosis prior to the age of 25 years, which is usually quite difficult to regulate.
- Latent – diabetes mellitus that happens during times of stress such as pregnancy, infectious disease, obesity, or trauma. Prior to any of these reasons, there are no symptoms or laboratory findings to indicate diabetes. There is a strong chance that these individuals will develop diabetes mellitus.
- Mellitus – a disorder of carbohydrate metabolism characterized by hyperglycemia (too much sugar in the blood) resulting from inadequate production or utilization of insulin.
- Pancreatic – diabetes associated with disease of the pancreas.
- Renal – a condition characterized by a low renal threshold for sugar.
Two most commons types of diabetes:
- Insulin-dependent diabetes mellitus (IDDM) – this type is also referred to as Type I. Little or no insulin is secreted. People with this kind of diabetes require insulin injections to stay alive.
- Non-insulin-dependent diabetes mellitus (NIDDM) – also referred to as Type II. There may be a defect in the release of insulin, but most commonly there is conflict in the action of insulin in the tissues. This type usually develops after age 40 but may be seen in obese children. 80% of NIDDM are obese. This type is almost exclusively hereditary. The onset may be prevented or postponed by calorie restriction and weight loss.
- Excessive urination
- Excessive thirst
- Excessive eating
- Weight loss
- Weakness and fatigue
Type II (same as Type I plus:)
- Slow healing
- Blurred vision
- Cramps in legs/feet
- Dietary Management – the purpose of dietary management is to maintain ideal body weight. The meal plan is designed to contain adequate calories, protein, vitamins and minerals.
- Exercise – promotes the utilization of carbohydrates and enhances the action of insulin. Clients may develop hypoglycemia (low blood sugar) after exercise unless they take extra carbohydrates beforehand.
- Insulin Therapy – When the client cannot produce the adequate amount of insulin, it is necessary to give it by injection. Insulin lowers the blood glucose. One or more insulin injections each day is required for patients with IDDM. Clients with NIDDM may require insulin during acute illness, infection, stress, surgery, or pregnancy.
People with diabetes have to take extra care to make sure that their food is balanced with insulin and oral medications. Exercise also is needed to help manage blood glucose levels. One method of healthy diabetic dining includes the Plate Method (for more information visit www.diabetes.org).
- Put a line down the middle of a dinner plate.
- Then on one side, cut it again so you will have 3 sections on your plate.
- Fill the largest section with non-starchy vegetables such as spinach, carrots, lettuce, cabbage, green beans, broccoli, cauliflower, tomatoes, vegetable juice, salsa, onion, cucumber, beets, okra, mushrooms, peppers, turnips.
- In one of the small sections, put starchy foods such as whole grain breads, like whole wheat or rye, whole grain, high-fiber cereal, cooked cereal such as oatmeal, grits, hominy, or cream of wheat, rice, pasta, dal, tortillas, cooked beans and peas such as pinto beans or black-eyed peas, potatoes, green peas, corn, lima beans, sweet potatoes, winter squash, low-fat crackers and snack chips, pretzels, and fat-free popcorn.
- In the other small section, put meat or meat substitutes such as chicken or turkey without the skin, fish such as tuna, salmon, cod, or catfish, other seafood such as shrimp, clams, oysters, crab, or mussels, lean cuts of beef and pork such as sirloin or pork loin, tofu, eggs, low-fat cheese.
- Add an 8-oz. glass of non-fat or low-fat milk. If you don’t drink milk, you can add another small serving of carbs such as a 6-oz. container of light yogurt or a small roll and a piece of fruit or a 1/2 cup fruit salad. Examples are fresh, frozen, or canned in juice or frozen in light syrup or fresh fruit.
Your Trusted Source for Home Care Services for Diabetes Patients
Homewatch CareGivers offers Diabetes Home Care and In Home Health Care and Support for patients with Diabetes throughout Chicago and the North Shore suburbs including both Cook County and Lake County. We provide our home care, senior care and dementia care services to residents of Arlington Heights, Buffalo Grove, Chicago, Deerfield, Des Plaines, Evanston, Glencoe, Glenview, Highland Park, Fort Sheridan, Highwood, Kenilworth, Lake Forest, Morton Grove, Niles, Northbrook, Park Ridge, Lincolnshire, Lincolnwood, Libertyville, Skokie, Wilmette and Winnetka.
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